The Impact of the EU’s Russia Sanctions on the Obligations under EU Chemicals Legislation
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (10/2022)
The EU’s sanctions adopted in the wake of the Russian invasion of Ukraine are in numerous ways unprecedented, especially considering the close economic ties that previously existed between the EU and Russia. The sanctions packages have therefore largely separated the two economies (as they intended to do) and thereby severely affected businesses and supply chains in and outside of Europe. While most multinationals are well aware of the impact on trade and have set up advanced compliance systems to ensure no prohibited trade in goods and provision of services takes place, there appears to be less awareness of the impact of the EU’s sanctions on operators’ compliance with EU chemical legislation. However, the sanctions also impact the obligations under the EU’s chemicals regulations, most notably on mandatory sharing of (vertebrate) animal studies but also related to the joint submission of registrations. This contribution hence examines the interplay between the respective obligations under the EU’s sanctions regime and the EU’s chemicals regulations, to allow operators to asses and determine their compliance strategies. While the contribution focuses on the interaction with the Russia sanctions, the same comments would apply generally to other sanctions imposed by the EU.

The circular packaging design guideline and holistic sustainability assessment in circular economy
© Lehrstuhl fĂĽr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2020)
The FH Campus Wien Circular Packaging Design Guideline provide recommendations for circular design for the whole supply chain. Circular design is a necessary prerequisite to achieve the goals of the European Circular Economy Package which requires full recyclability of packaging by 2030. Circular packaging should re-duce resource consumption and environmental impacts of packaging. The assessment of packaging sustainability requires the calculation of direct and indirect environmental impacts and circularity at the same time. A method for holistic sustainability assessment of packaging has been proposed by FH Campus Wien and developed in an ECR-working group (Efficient Consumer Response) with the participation of a number of companies along the whole supply chain (brand owners, retailers, packaging manufacturers and packaging systems).

Environmental-economic impact assessment of business models in the Austrian waste economy
© Lehrstuhl fĂĽr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2020)
The dynamic macroeconomic one-region and multi-sector model WIFO.DYNK (dynamic new-Keynesian) was adapted to model the employment and value-added impacts of the Austrian waste economy in this respect. It is based on the most recent input-output tables of Statistics Austria.

How to Optimize Recycling Rates Using Waste Incineration
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag fĂĽr Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The improvement of recycling and reuse of waste is becoming more and more important and it is generally preferred compared to waste incineration. In fact, the incineration of waste is often considered the last alternative when recycling of a certain waste fraction is technically not possible or there is simply no market for the corresponding fraction of the waste. But instead of considering waste incineration as being contradictory to recycling, it may also be considered as an alternative way to achieve higher recycling rates. The main goal of waste to energy is the use of the chemical energy contained in the carbon and drogen, and transfer this into thermal energy. But all other elements contained in the waste will of course also be found in the various residue streams leaving the plant. For these residue streams there are possibilities for further treatment, enabling Separation of certain elements, improvement of the quality of a residue stream to allow re-use on the market or even potential for the preparation of a new product.

Development of Waste-to-Energy Projects
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag fĂĽr Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The first objective of waste management must always be to protect society and the health of individuals from harmful substances contained in the waste. Along the various methods around the globe with which waste has been treated the waste pyramid or waste management hierarchy has become widely accepted as the governing principle for waste management in modern societies. These principles have also been integrated in the European waste framework directive 2008/98/EC. At the bottom of the pyramid lays disposal of waste, meaning it is the least favourable option to treat a primary waste. However this does not mean implementing the waste pyramid prohibits disposal. It merely means that before disposal all other meaningful options are exhausted, and the quantity has been minimized.

Current Developments in European Waste-to-Energy
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag fĂĽr Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In December 2015, one year after withdrawing the first Circular Economy package, the Juncker Commission published a broader and more ambitious proposal with revised targets and harmonized calculation methods for recycling. In parallel, the European Commission is still working on the Energy Union, a strategy that is the core of the institution’s work in which Waste-to-Energy will play a role. Finally, the Commission will publish a communication focused on Waste-to-Energy aiming to explore the opportunities offered by Waste-to-Energy, particularly with regard to synergies between resource and energy efficiencies by the end of 2016.

Waste to energy in Indonesia
© WtERT Germany GmbH (6/2014)
This report investigates the potential of waste-to-energy (WtE) technologies as a solution to Indonesia’s growing waste and energy challenges, and offers recommendations that address barriers to deployment. © The Carbon Trust 2014. All rights reserved.

Report of the Task Force on Waste to Energy (Volume I)
© WtERT Germany GmbH (5/2014)
The purpose of this report is to identify technically feasible, financially affordable and environmentally sound processing and disposal technologies for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and assess, evaluate and recommend systems, processes, technological options, financial mechanisms and institutional arrangements to enhance resource recovery and promote Waste to Energy (W to E) technologies while ensuring integrated management of MSW in India. © Planning Commission, Government of India. All rights reserved.

bifa-Text No. 62: Ecoefficiency analysis of photovoltaic modules / english version
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (2/2014)
The study by the bifa environmental institute describes a future-orientated view of the ecological and economic effects of photovoltaic (PV) systems along their whole life cycle.

Energy from waste - A guide to the debate
© WtERT Germany GmbH (2/2014)
The purpose of this guide is to provide a starting point for discussions about the role energy from waste might have in managing waste. This role will always be dependent on specific circumstances therefore this guide does not attempt to give all the answers. However, it does highlight questions that should be asked, options that are available, and the process for making decisions and influencing them. © Crown copyright 2014

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