Waste-to-Energy Projects in Emerging Markets: Lessons Learned from Realized International Projects
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (12/2015)
A rapidly growing population, industry and energy consumption are key indicators for emerging markets. As their economic circumstances develop quickly, emerging markets attract further capital which is accompanied by further economic growth and a need for a suitable infrastructure environment. This accelerating development leads towards big shifts in the national and global economy.

Reviewing EU Waste Legislation: A Stepping Stone Towards a Circular Economy
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
Global demand for resources continues to grow, driven by an increasing world population and improving standards of living. In the 20th century, the world experienced a four-fold population growth and a 23-fold increase in economic output. Almost all predictions are that resource demand will continue upwards. The world’s population is expected to exceed nine billion by 2050, and by 2030 there will be three times the current number of people with middle class consumption levels in the now-developing world. Global extraction of resources is expected to increase by 75 percent in the next 25 years.

The UNFCCC at a Crossroads
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (3/2014)
Can Increased Involvement of Business and Industry Help Rescue the Multilateral Climate Regime?

Critical Approach of the Use of Economic Models in Precautionary Risk Management
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2013)
In this article a synthesis of formal models for the economic interpretation of the precautionary principle is presented, with their virtualities, limitations and measures to overcome them. The concept of precaution has great relevance in environmental regulation in the European Union. On the one hand, and despite the somewhat vague nature of legislation, the interpretation of the precautionary principle has seen recent progress with the development of some economic models and their application. There is, however, a need for a regulatory framework for the implementation of this principle in environmental decision-making, i.e., to clarify concepts and management procedures that are appropriate to the nature of environmental risks. It is therefore important to know the most relevant economic approaches and models with the aim of identifying their contribution to the debate on precaution in the context of environmental risk management and discuss their practical relevance in public decision-making.

The difficulties of Regulating Markets and Risks in Europe through Notified Bodies
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2013)
Although scholars have described and commented on the European New Approach to standardisation principles, they have paidmuch less attention to the ways in which this innovative process and its follow-on, i.e. the Global Approach, have been implemented. In many cases, this comes through the day-to-day activity of a very specific population of European experts, the notified bodies. Notified bodies, whose role it is to certify that products, for a given sector, comply with the essential safety requirements set out in the corresponding directive, originate from theMember States, but also compete against each other within a European certification market. This article examines the technical and political difficulties encountered by the Commission and the Member States in ensuring both the independence and the competences of these certifiers. It describes and questions the organisational architecture devised in response to these problems.

Offshore Renewable Energy Development in the British Islands: Legal and Political Risk - Part 1: Energy Policy and Electricity Market Reform
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (8/2013)
Offshore renewable energy (ORE) development forms a central pillar of UK plans for a largely decarbonised economy by mid-century. To reach ambitious climate change targets and a related renewable energy target, however, step changes are needed in levels of investment in offshore generating stations, electricity transmission networks and related supply chains. Key aims are driving down costs and delivering short-term certainty and longer-term visibility for investors. The law will play a major part in meeting both aims, through two mechanisms: electricity market reform, discussed in this first part of a two-part article; and removing barriers by improving major infrastructure planning, marine planning, licensing consents, environmental management, electricity grid access and marine use accommodation processes, all discussed in the second part to appear in the September issue of RELP.

Principles and Structures of European Risk Governance, or: How (not) to Play a Trust Game
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2013)
Ever more risky service activities are carried out across borders, creating spillovers and externalities. At the same time, if freedom to provide services is legally enabled, states can cooperate in multiple ways to mitigate the potential risks accruing from crossborder activities.

Access to Environmental Information versus Protection of Confidential Business Information
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (5/2013)
Transparency of the work of EU institutions enables the administration to enjoy greater legitimacy. Aiming to further strengthening the principles of democracy in the EU, the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union (“TFEU”) provides for public access to documents held by EU institutions in order to bring about greater openness in their work.

Climate Change Mitigation from the Bottom Up: Using Preferential Trade Agreements to Promote Climate Change Mitigation
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
This paper proposes the introduction of a regional model for promoting climate change mitigation as an alternative to the present structure of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)/Kyoto Protocol framework. Given the proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) – especially in the form of bilateral treaties – in the international trading system, this paper advocates creating PTAs with strong climate change chapters, thus embedding climate goals within bilateral/trilateral/plurilateral trade agreements. Involving major greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters through PTAs which include climate chapters can be an effective avenue towards reducing GHG emissions, and could therefore facilitate the ultimate goal of creating an effective global climate regime. This option may therefore be worth exploring.

Fostering REDD+ Investment Through Effective Legal Frameworks: Lessons From the Development of Early Forest Carbon Projects
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
Forest carbon projects have been developed under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the voluntary market and other domestic schemes. These projects provide insight into the practical challenges for REDD+ implementation with respect to defining rights to carbon, ensuring the permanence of REDD+ areas, and creating “investment-grade” carbon commodities which are capable of attracting private sector finance. Given that private sector finance will be necessary to scale-up REDD+ implementation, insight regarding the legal frameworks required to support private sector investment is valuable. This paper does not seek to advocate for either a market-based or projectlevel approach to REDD+ implementation, but draws on practical experience with early forest carbon projects to explore how legal frameworks for REDD+ can encourage private sector Investment.

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