Shaping the Electricity Market of the Future
© SRU - Sachverständigenrat fĂĽr Umweltfragen (11/2013)
Climate-neutral electricity generation is both necessary and possible. It is necessary because the Federal Republic of Germany, together with the other Member States of the European Union, has committed itself to the target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 per cent from 1990 levels by 2050. This is the industrialised countries’ minimum contribution to the internationally agreed target of preventing global average temperature from rising more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels. This target can only be achieved by moving to a power system essentially based on renewable sources, as substantial emission reductions are easier and less expensive to implement in the electricity sector than in other sectors.

Europe’s Air Becomes More and More Expensive: The Integration of Maritime Transport into the European Emission Trading Scheme
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (8/2012)
Europas Geduld mit der internationalen Seeschifffahrtsorganisation neigt sich dem Ende zu: Da bisher auf internationaler Ebene eine Einigung auf eine verbindliche Reduktion der Treibhausgasemissionen des Schifffahrtssektors nicht in Sicht ist, plant die Europäische Union die Einführung eigener Maßnahmen. Die wahrscheinliche Option ist der Einbezug in das europäische Emissionshandelssystem, so wie es bereits für den Flugverkehr seit Januar 2012 der Fall ist. Dies würde die internationale Seeschifffahrt vor finanzielle, technische, und administrative Herausforderungen stellen – nicht nur in Europa. Ein solches Handelssystem wirft darüber hinaus, je nach Anwendungsbereich und Ausgestaltung, rechtliche Fragen im Hinblick auf seine Vereinbarkeit mit Völkerrecht auf, insbesondere bezüglich Vorschriften des Seerechts, des internationalen Handelsrechts und der Legalität extraterritorialer Maßnahmen.

Product Carbon Footprinting: Calculation and Communication Standards in the Making
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2010)
A Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) is the entire life cycle (cradle-to-grave) accounting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for an individual good or service. It is propagated to effect changes in corporate policy and consumer choice toward less emission intensive production and consumption patterns. Though not yet a legislative reality, calculation and communication standards are in the making. This study attempts to compare the most prominent PCF efforts to date, analysing how each emerging standard addresses key PCF calculation features. It concludes that potential for methodology harmonisation exists, and that the time is ripe and the know-how available for such harmonisation to occur. PCF standard harmonisation can be an important contributor to achievement of the transition to a more sustainable production and consumption culture needed for effective climate change mitigation.

Across the Top of the World? Emerging Arctic Navigational Opportunities and Arctic Governance
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2009)
The Arctic Ocean has witnessed dramatic thinning and melting of sea ice cover as a consequence of climate change in recent years. This has led to increasing access to and thus activities in the Arctic region, including with regard to shipping. Arctic navigational opportunities are examined and it is concluded that there are a number of major obstacles to Arctic routes transforming the pathways of global trade, at least in the immediate future. The likely future opening up of Arctic sea lanes does, however, provide a focal point for increasing external interest in the region and for changes in oceans governance.

Flexible Transport Services for environmental and sustainable urban mobility: the INTERREG IVC FLIPPER project
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Flexible Transport Services (FTS) have proved to be an advantageous solution in integrating and complementing the provision of conventional public transport services in order to reduce pollution and congestion whilst increasing the social cohesion and encouraging sustainable economic growth especially in urban and metropolitan areas.

Deep investigation of ultrafine particles in urban air
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
This work describes the results of a study started in 2007 to investigate the ultrafine particle (UFP) pollution in the urban area of Rome. The sampling site was located in a street with high density of autovehicular traffic, where measurements have shown that carbonaceous particulate matter represented an important fraction of aerosol pollution.

DNA damage in human pulmonary cells exposed to organic extracts of PM2.5 collected from two urban sites at different traffic intensity
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Genotoxic and oxidative effects of PM2.5 organic extracts from personal respirable dust samples of security guards working in two sites of Rome(Italy), were investigated. The PM 2.5 samples were collected at site 1 and site 2 characterized by moderate and high traffic intensity respectively.

Statistical analysis of PM10 data in urban region of Volos, Greece
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Hourly measurements of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ÎĽm (PM10) recorded in the urban area of Volos, a medium-sized Greek coastal city, for a seven-year period, 2001-2007, are analysed. The main objective of this work is to study the typical behaviour of this air pollutant concerning diurnal and seasonal variations and meteorology dependencies.

Influence of temporal variation of traffic volume and composition on air quality in urban areas
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the traffic temporal evolution on the air pollution in urban areas using the city of Thessaloniki as a case study. Data from traffic counts were used and include traffic volume and composition in main roads and intersections of the Thessaloniki city centre.

Seasonal characteristics of particulate matter and metallic elements in a residential area in Ulsan, Korea
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
This study investigated mass and metallic elements composition of fine and coarse particles collected in an residential area of Ulsan, Korea. Daily sampling using an eight-stage cascade impactor were conducted from April through August 2008.

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