Modification of the sewage sludge ash P-mineralogy by thermo-chemical treatment with LF slags
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2022)
As an essential nutrient Phosphorus (P) is an important constituent in fertilisers used in agriculture. However, almost the entire amount of P used in Europe must be imported from sources worldwide. High amounts of P are concentrated in sewage sludge from mostly municipal sewage. From 2029 P-recycling from sewage sludge is mandatory for wastewater treatment plants in Germany. In this study, a process which uses a thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash (SSA) with Ca-carriers, is developed. The method succeeds in producing materials which match the demands for plant available P and as proven by chemical extraction and pot trials as required by national and European regulations for fertilisers. This was achieved by treating the molten SSA with burnt lime and slags from Ca-rich ladle furnace (LF-slag) which results in the formation of better soluble P-minerals in comparison to the phases whitlockite and apatite mostly abundant in SSA.

Increasing the organic matter content of sandy soils using sewage sludge compost
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
The growing quantity of wastes increases the need for environmentally sound treatment and utilization of these materials. Sewage sludge is a continuously formed organic waste. Its treatment and utilization depend on the quality of the sludge. If it contains high quantity of nutrients and the organic and inorganic toxic materials and elements are present in low quantity, the sewage sludge could be composted and utilized in the agriculture. In our long-term sewage sludge compost experiment 0, 9, 18 and 27 t ha-1 compost is added to the soil in every third year. Compost is made from sewage sludge, straw, rhyolite and bentonite therefore it is suitable for improving the acidic sandy soil in the Nyírség region of Hungary.

Organic matter transformation drives the fate of organic micropollutants during anaerobic digestion and composting of sludge
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
In France, sewage sludge is very often recycled on cropped soils as fertilizer substitute. To avoid impacts related to organic micropollutant input in soil, it is necessary to ensure their dissipation from the sludge during the stabilization processes like anaerobic digestion and composting. The behaviour of organic micropollutants (13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nonylphenols, 2 antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin), 1 hormone (β-estradiol) and 1 anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen)) was experimentally studied during lab-scale anaerobic digestion followed by composting. At the same time, the fate of organic matter was studied during the treatments. To go further on the comprehension of organic micropollutants dissipation mechanisms, the organic matter was chemically fractionated according to its accessibility.

Effect of sewage sludge compost application on the potential toxic elements of soil and plant in 2009-2012
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
In the spring of 2003 we established a small plot experiment with sewage sludge compost that contains 40% sewage sludge, 25% straw, 30% rhyolite and 5% bentonite. In 2006, 2009 and 2012 the experiment was re-treated. We ploughed into the soil 0, 9, 18 and 27 t ha-1 sewage sludge compost in five repetitions. We used spring crops and autumn cereals as corn, pea and triticale in crop rotation. Now we present some potential toxic elements (Co, Cu, Ni and Pb) content of soil samples collected from the 0-30 cm soil layer after harvesting, in 2009-2012.

Pilot-Scale anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and olive mill wastewater for increased biogas production
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a highly polluting wastewater, caused by a high organic load and phenol content. These characteristics suggest that it may be suitable for increased biogas production in anaerobic treatment. In an attempt to improve biogas production co-digestion of sewage sludge and OMW was studied.

Surface temperature analyses of sewage sludge based open air composting
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
The economical growth of the EU is followed by the growth of the amount of wastes which indicates needless cost, energy consumption, environmental damages, health problems and decreases life quality. The main goal of the EU is to transform the community to a “recycling society” through the decrease of these negative effects.

Energy-based optimization of dry-state, sequential anaerobic digestion – Aerobic composting of sewage sludge
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Sequential anaerobic digestion - aerobic composting processes are crucial for low carbon footprint utilization of sewage sludge. Treatment plants with sludge drying may benefit from such methods, provided that the two degradation processes are harmonized. A laboratory-scale trial was executed focusing on the energy relations of the two processes.

A regional and source-oriented approach of organic waste management - A feasibility study for composting on Bonaire, C/N
© DGAW - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Abfallwirtschaft e.V. (3/2014)
This study investigated the feasibility of turning organic waste from food ‘FW’, vegetation ‘VW’, and sludge ‘SS’ into compost suitable for soil improvement purposes under the prevailing conditions on Bonaire. The research consisted of waste flow inventories, organic substrate characterizations, composting experiments, soil investigations, and the assessment of consequential environmental and financial impacts.

Sewage Sludge Treatment in Europe – an Overview
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (10/2012)
With the implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC, municipal sludge production has increased steadily in the EU during the last decade, although reduced water consumption and increased sludge treatment in some memberstates may have caused a stagnation or even slight decrease in sludge production (e.g. Germany, Austria, Sweden). Based on data provided to the European Commission for the 2002 – 2006 period, about 9.7 million Mg sludge solids are produced in the EU each year, 8.7 million Mg in EU-15 and an additional 1.0 million Mg in the new member states. Nearly 70 % of the total sludge mass is produced in Germany, UK, Italy, Spain and France. Until 2020, annual EU sludge production is expected to increase by 30 % up to 13 million Mg dried solids.

Phosphorus Recovery from Sewage Sludge
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2011)
Phosphorus is an essential element, necessary for the sustaining of life and therefore irreplaceable and non-substitutable. It’s economically viable reserves in the earth’s crust are running out, which is why science has been searching for years for methods to recover phosphorus from anthropogenic sources. Besides manure, which is in use already, the greatest potential is seen in the field of wastewater treatment. In the recent years, several promising methods of P recovery from the material flows of wastewater treatment have been developed.

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