Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

Fully Automated Sorting Plant for Municipal Solid Waste in Oslo with Recovery of Metals, Plastics, Paper and Refuse Derived Fuel
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In order to treat household waste Romerike Avfallsforedling (ROAF) located in Skedsmorkorset north of Oslo, Norway required the installation of a mechanical Treatment facility to process 40,000 tpa. Together with a Norwegian based technical consultancy Mepex and German based technical consultancy EUG the project was tendered and the plant build against a technical specification. In 2013 the project was awarded to Stadler Anlagenbau and since April 2014 the plant is in operation with an hourly throughput of thirty tons. The input waste contains specific green coloured bags containing food waste which is collected together with the residual waste from the households. The process recovers successfully the green food bags before the remaining waste is mechanically pre-treated and screened to isolate a polymer rich fraction which is then fully segregated via NIR technology in to target polymers prior to fully automated product baling. Recoverable Fibre is optically targeted as well as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. All food waste is transported off site for further biological treatment and the remaining residual waste leaves site for thermal recovery. In 2015 the plant has been successfully upgraded to forty tons per hour and remains fully automated including material baling.

Communally Funded Waste Treatment Plants
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (3/2010)
Communally funded waste disposal in Germany was a major achievement of the 19th century. Until then, all waste was simply thrown out. Proper disposal helped combat epidemics and diseases that posed a major problem in those days. The creation of hygienically bearable conditions was an intrinsic task of the waste disposal service. For more than 100 years now, waste incineration has also been communally funded. More than 100 years ago, the first plant began operation in Hamburg.

Extraction of coal residues from hard coal mining waste dumps as a chance of minimization of their adverse environmental impact
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Re-mining of existing dumping sites for extraction of coal residues (around 10% wt.) with subsequent reuse of a secondary waste in engineering constructions or its re-disposal in the environmentally safe way is an attractive and economically viable way of coal protection as a valuable natural resource and adequate reduction of dumped waste volume, along with reduction of adverse environmental impact of coal mining waste dumps.

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Victoria is the second most populous state in Australia and has had a significant manufacturing base since the late 1800s. Managing hazardous waste (locally referred to as prescribed industrial waste) has been a priority for the Victorian Government and the Victorian Environment Protection Authority (EPA) for several years. n 2000, a Victorian Government appointed committee (HWCC, 2000) recommended among other things that: There should be greater emphasis on moving hazardous waste management further up the Waste Hierarchy, to reduce the generation of waste requiring disposal. That existing prescribed waste landfills be phased out and that retrieval repositories and longterm waste containment facilities be developed.Repositories should be designed to take those prescribed wastes for which retrieval possibilities are seen to exist for a higher order use.

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Waste Management in England takes a two-tier approach. Waste Collection Authorities (WCAs) are responsible for providing day-to-day collections of household wastes. At agreed locations, called Transfer Stations, Waste Disposal Authorities (WDAs) take control of the wastes and arrange for disposal. Some urban areas of England are governed by Unitary Authorities, which are responsible for both the collection and disposal of the waste generated within their boundaries. This two-tier system has resulted in there being two standard options provided by authorities for disposing of household bulky waste, which includes furniture, electrical appliances and other large and heavy items not accepted on regular refuse or recycling collections (e.g. carpets, bicycles, household construction wastes). (Session A10: Waste recycling (II))

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Existing way of waste management almost nowhere complies with the ecological principles, criteria and standards. Essentially, this proves to be true for the island of Krk as well. The pollution of environment, water and air along with environment destruction results not only in the destruction of our values and resources but in the destruction of our children's, grandchildren's and great grandchildren's future. In a special and dramatic way this happens to a precious and delicate environment (limestone area, sea) of island Krk. (Session A6: Waste collection)



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