Exploring techno-environmental pathways how urban biorefineries for organic waste valorization potentially contribute to the design of future urban bioeconomy systems with net-positive impact
© Lehrstuhl fĂĽr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2022)
When striving to understand the complexity of driving forces on energy and material flows within cities and of cities in interrelation with their surroundings the multidisciplinary approach of framing, describing and specifying the regionalized urban metabolism is the state-of-the art tool which is currently further gaining in significance and scientific and political attention (Sanches and Bento 2020). There is for example the household metabolism for heating fuels which constitutes a major fraction of urban energy flows from the input side, which has to be reduced in the future to decouple from import dependency and from greenhouse gas intensive energy systems.

Regulatory Change, Retroactivity and Protection of Legitimate Expectations in the Spanish Renewable Energy Policy
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2022)
In the last two decades, most states have implemented policies to promote renewable energies. It was not expected to be an easy task, but some of the difficulties seem to have come as a surprise. The energy transition to a non-carbonised economy does not only involve technical challenges, but also economic and geopolitical issues, which might recuire a certain realpolitik approach (“governments must resolve the conflict between safe supply and a safe climate”). In this paper, however, we will confine ourselves to the legalissues.

Assessing the Resource Efficiency of Biorefineries Using Organic Residues - Methodology and Examples
© Lehrstuhl fĂĽr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
The IEA Bioenergy Task 42 “Biorefining” has the following definition on biorefining: “Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of bio-based products (food, feed, chemicals, and materials) and bioenergy (biofuels, power and/or heat)”. Various types of organic residues are a sustainable resource that offers great opportunities for a comprehensive product portfolio to satisfy the different needs in a future BioEconomy.

Resource Recovery from Waste Using the Input Flexibility of Waste Gasification Technology
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag fĂĽr Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Nowadays, gasification of waste or biomass is becoming the great interest all over the world. Especially, gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been well-researched in Japan. The development of MSW gasification technology was started in the 1970s in Japan because of oil crisis. Several technologies have been researched and developed. The Direct Melting System (DMS), which is the gasification and melting technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd., is one of the developed waste gasification technologies in this era. This technology was introduced for commercial use in Kamaishi City, Japan in 1979. As well as this waste technology, other gasification technologies have been developed for commercial use and installed.

Overview of the Pyrolysis and Gasification Processes for Thermal Disposal of Waste
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag fĂĽr Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Thermal treatment of waste started in the 1870s in England with the first waste incineration plants and this technology was in short time adopted by many industrialised countries. Starting in the late 1970s waste incineration was blamed for emission of toxic compounds, in particular of dioxins, and public pressure initiated the decree of more and more stringent air emission standards in all countries which, again, induced significant improvement of the environmental performance of waste incineration.

Initial Operating Experience with the New Polish Waste-to-Energy Plants
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag fĂĽr Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Waste-to-Energy plants are an integral part of modern municipal Waste Management Systems. Today recycling and energy recovery from waste are the only methods of dealing with municipal waste. This is demonstrated by Waste Management Systems in countries such as Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark and Austria, where the municipal waste management is limited solely to recycling and energy recovery from waste. The currently discussed concept of the latest circular economy package can hardly change anything in this matter. Poland, as one of the leaders among the new EU member states (since 2004), has still a lot to do within the scope of recycling and waste-to-energy.

Complex Approach towards the Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Plants’ Future Potential
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag fĂĽr Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
There is a fierce debate ongoing about future recycling targets for municipal solid waste (MSW) at the European level. The old linear concept of waste management is being changed into a circular economy. Since the separation yield and post-recycling MSW (later on residual solid waste, RSW) production have an opposite relationship, assuming the constant production of particular components (paper, plastics etc.), lower RSW rates are also expected. This is having a negative effect on Waste-to-energy (WtE); especially in terms of its future optimum capacity in particular countries.

The Added Value of the Balance Method for Waste-to-Energy Operators and National Authorities
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag fĂĽr Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
Different directives of the European Union may require operators of Waste to Energy WTE plants to monitor the composition of their waste feed with respect to the Content of biomass and fossil organic matter. The mass fractions of both materials are not only of relevance for the amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions of the plant, but also for the ratio of renewable energy generated, as biomass in wastes is considered as renewable energy source.

Regenerative Thermal Oxidation in the Cement Industry – Technology and Operation –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag fĂĽr Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The cement industry plays a pivotal role in meeting society’s needs for housing and infrastructure. Cement is one of the most important and widely used commodities in the world and is therefore a key ingredient of economic development. Current world production of cement is well above 4,500 million tons per year and growing.

Mixing in biogas digesters: correlations between laboratory experiments on artificial substrate and simulations with computational fluid dynamics
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Universität Rostock (6/2016)
Energy demand for mixing of biomass digesters is a crucial parameter in design and operation of biogas plants. Optimization of flow characteristics in the fermentation process is usually focused on the stirrers where their placement, shape and number, as well as their rotational speed and switching sequence are all important decision variables for overall energy efficiency planning.

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