Securing India‚Äôs Energy Options in an Interdependent World
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
The International Energy Agency (IEA) defines energy security as ‚Äúthe physical availability of energy at a price which is affordable, while respecting environment concerns.‚ÄĚ1 Today, energy security has become a worldwide concern due to the uneven distribution of energy supplies across the world. Many countries face a tough task in securing reliable sources of energy to power their economies. Common threats to energy security include political instability in various countries having huge oil and natural gas reserves, terrorism, attacks on supply infrastructure, rising prices of fossil fuels due to limited availability of resources (peaking of oil production) and overall competition by dominant countries in securing oil supplies.
The civilation biorefinery - inventories for efficient utilization of local waste and waste water based bioressources for material and energy generation
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Since fossil resources are limited, more and more focus is laid on the utilisation of organics for energygeneration. But these bioresources are also valuable for food, feed and material production. Biorefineries are complexand integrated systems of processes and facilities with the purpose to transform primary bioresources into a multitude ofenergetic and material products. They are expected to be the step forward into a bio-based economy. Civilisationbiorefineries expand this goal by the efficient utilization of local resources which are generated as secondary or tertiarybioresources in form of waste, waste water or residues e.g. of landscape care.
The International Renewable Energy Agency: A Global Voice for the Renewable Energy Era?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2011)
The International Renewable Energy Agency held the first session of its Assembly as a fully-fledged international organisation in April 2011. This article aims to introduce the Agency and provide a basis for ongoing academic comment, discussion and analysis as the Agency establishes itself and progresses its substantive work. The paper will briefly outline the origins of the Agency, its institutional arrangements and key elements of its Statute, and consider the first budget and work programme. The paper will note some points of interest that warrant further discussion before outlining the Agency‚Äôs activities to date and assessing the potential contribution the Agency can make to the development of renewables.
LABILE CARBON FRACTIONS OF DIFFERENT BIOCHAR TYPES AND THE EFFECT OF BIOCHAR ON THE NITROGEN CYCLE
© ANS e.V. HAWK (10/2011)
One of the gaps in biochar research is the understanding of biochar's short and longer term interactions with the nitrogen cycle, which will inevitably affect crop yields. Some potential effects of biochar on the N-cycle are linked with 1) mineralization of soil organic matter, 2) abiotic N-immobilization due to biochar's charge and high surface area and 3) biotic N-immobilization during respiration of the labile carbon fraction of biochar.
BIOCHAR AND SOIL C AND N DYNAMICS - EFFECT OF PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY AND TEMPERATURE SETTINGS
© ANS e.V. HAWK (10/2011)
Using data from incubation studies the effect of slow and fast pyrolysis on the chemical characteristics of biochar and the impact on C and N dynamics after soil incorporation was compared. Biochar was produced from wheat straw by slow pyrolysis (SP) at 525°C and by fast pyrolysis (FP) at five reactor temperatures (475- 575°C) using a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor (PCR). After 115 days soil incubation 3- 12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO2. The lowest cumulative emission (3%) was observed in the treatments with SP-biochar and high-temperature FP-biochar (575°C), whereas the highest emissions occurred in soil amended with low-temperature FP-biochars (475°C).
After the World Cup: Programmatic CDM Kicks Off in South Africa
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2010)
South Africa successfully organised the first-ever Football World Cup on African soil last summer. And soon it will be hosting another historic event: its first CDM Programme of Activities (PoA). After their tragic loss in the football final, the Dutch will be playing a different game this time.