Assessing the Resource Efficiency of Biorefineries Using Organic Residues - Methodology and Examples
© Lehrstuhl fĂĽr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
The IEA Bioenergy Task 42 “Biorefining” has the following definition on biorefining: “Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of bio-based products (food, feed, chemicals, and materials) and bioenergy (biofuels, power and/or heat)”. Various types of organic residues are a sustainable resource that offers great opportunities for a comprehensive product portfolio to satisfy the different needs in a future BioEconomy.

Fast methanification of swine manure as an example for substrates with low organic content
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Universität Rostock (6/2015)
A biogas reactor of 45 mÂł was fed with pure swine manure. A straw layer worked as an anaerobic filter on top of the fluid. The manure was continuously circulated to irrigate the straw. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of straw was 45 days. HRT of manure was reduced from 45 to 7.5 days within one year. Average concentration of volatile solids (VS) of manure only was 1.8 %. We varied VS concentration and temperature to simulate normal disturbances of operation. Gas production normalized within one day after each short heating interruption. Variations of VS concentration had no negative influence on the Operation as a whole. After two months, a zone with granular sludge in autonomous fluidization was observed just below the straw layer. This shows that the reactor is a hybrid biogas reactor containing a fixed bed on the top, and an UASB zone below.

Impact of Operation Mode and Design on the Energy Efficiency of Waste Combustion Plants
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag fĂĽr Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
As climate issues are gaining urgency worldwide, focus is set on reducing industrial carbon footprints through fossil fuel replacement and energetic optimization of processes. This paper contains results of a study on technical options to attain a higher energetic efficiency from Waste-to-Energy (WtE) boiler & steam cycles. The aim of the study is to determine the available margins for energetic optimization of WtE plants, taking into account the particular constraints of a waste combustion process. The impacts of distinct process variables are quantified and compared. These variables include a.o. temperatures, pressures, process ratios and recycling rates, as typically applied to flows of combustion air, flue gas, steam and condensate. A few selected cases are elaborated to illustrate the cumulative effect of technical choices during the design and the operation of WtE plants. Finally, the results also enable the knowledgeable reader to determine an indicative value for R1.

Greenhouse gas balances in biowaste treatment concepts with focus on compost and energy production
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
The greenhouse (GHG) gas and energy performance of bio-waste treatment plants was investigated for characteristic bio-waste treatment concepts: composting, biological drying for the production of biomass fuel fractions, and anaerobic digestion. In contrast to other Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies the focus was put on the direct comparison of the latest process concepts and state of the art emission control measures. In addition the value of compost as a soil improver was included in the evaluation.

SYNECO - synergy of high quality green compost and green energy
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
How can the compost industry optimally apply the available biomass resources for producing green energy and high quality soil improvers? What innovations in composting (adapted process in case of lower amounts of bulky material) are feasible, and what are the possibilities for anaerobic digestion of the fine fraction of green waste? Can we set standardized quality requirements for both end products (both compost and biomass streams)? Does the production of both high quality soil improver and biomass for green energy allow an economic optimization for the compost sector?

Offshore Renewable Energy Development in the British Islands: Legal and Political Risk - Part 2: Update and Removing Blockages to Development
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2013)
In Part 1 of this two-part article, it was argued that: offshore renewable energy development is a central pillar of United Kingdom plans for a largely decarbonised economy by mid-century; in order to reach ambitious climate change targets and budgets, and a related renewables target, step changes are needed in levels of investment in offshore generating stations, electricity transmission networks and related supply chains; and so key aims must be driving down costs and delivering for investors short-term certainty and longer-term visibility (balanced, of course, with a degree of policy flexibility). The first of the two main mechanisms in which the law will play a major part in meeting those key aims, Electricity Market Reform (EMR), was discussed in Part 1, in the context of political and legal risk for investors, to the extent that EMR had emerged by 24 July 2013. It should be noted that the relevant political landscape has changed fundamentally since that date, warranting an update of Part 1 now. The second mechanism, removing barriers to offshore renewable energy development through improving or introducing major infrastructure planning, marine planning, licensing consents, environmental management, transmission network (grid) access and use/amenity accommodation and decommissioning processes, are now discussed in this second part, following the above-mentioned update. Account will again be taken of developments in Devolved Administrations and the Crown Dependencies. The piece is up to date as of 19 September 2013.

Biochar: climate saving soils developments in the Interreg Northsea Region Project
© HAWK Hochschule fĂĽr angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst - Fakultät Ressourcenmanagement (10/2013)
The project Biochar: climate saving soils is a project which is funded by the EU Interreg IVB North Sea Region Programme. The 11 partners from 7 countries develop and share their biochar knowledge about standards, production, use and environmental impact. They jointly investigate and demonstrate the effect of biochar addition to soil on soil quality, crop production and green house gas emissions in demonstration fields and in laboratory tests in each country according to standard protocols.

Bioenergy in the Baltic Sea Region, Nordic Countries and EU
© Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultät Universität Rostock (6/2013)
Bioenergy gives Europe the best opportunity to reduce GHG emission and secure its energy supply. However, the biomass production should not create additional pressure on the environment. Therefore, for the presented calculations, biomass for energy utilization originates from the cropland of the existing agricultural areas. Permanent grassland, areas of agro-forestry and pasture have not been taken into account.

Biomethane in Europe - can western success spread east?
© Eigenbeiträge der Autoren (4/2013)
Already 157 plants are injecting Biogas into the gas grids of Europe. Biomethane initiatives such as new support schemes as in France and the UK should help to stimulate the market.

Efficiency and Public Acceptance of European Grid Expansion Projects: Lessons Learned across Europe
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
The adoption of the European Union’s target to increase the share of energy from renewable sources to 20 % requires a substantial modernisation and rebuilding of the electricity grid. Current grid projects are often delayed for a variety of reasons, such as the inefficiency of permitting procedures or local opposition. In fall 2011, the European Commission proposed a regulation which aims at enhancing the necessary grid expansion. The legislation was adopted by the European Parliament and the Council in April and came into force on 15 May 2013. Among other considerations, the legislation aims at tackling the aforementioned challenges by making permitting procedures more efficient and implementing measures to increase the acceptance of new power-lines. However, questions remain about the quality and quantity of the proposed provisions designed to overcome all details of the identified problems. It will depend on the implementation of this legislation both on the European and on local level whether the new provisions will prove to be successful in terms of increased procedure efficiency and decreased public opposition. EU institutions, national governments, and competent public authorities should be aware of the area of conflict between improved procedure efficiency and increased public acceptance.

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