Effective and Dissuasive: Study of Criminal and Administrative Sanctions related to Environmental Protection in Spain from 2013 to 2018
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (8/2021)
Current criminal policy, both at a national and European level, increasingly resorts to criminal law, by raising the severity of the existing penalties and expanding criminal types to include new behaviours.1 Although initially restricted to crimes that protect personal legal assets (e.g. life, property, etc.),nowadays thesedissuasive tools areusedfor crimes against collective legal assets, such as the environment.

rDNA Traces in Fermentation Products Using Genetically Modified Microorganisms (GMMs)
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (8/2021)
Certain products such as amino acids, flavourings, oligosaccharides, organic acids, or vitamins are obtained by fermentation using genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs). Such fermentation products may be used as or in food and feed. Although the GMMs are separated from the fermentation products during downstream processing these products may, nevertheless, contain traces of rDNA originating from the GMMs.

Degradation of similar Iprodione pesticides and their dichloroanilines (DCAs) metabolites by pesticide-degrading rhizobacteria
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Important worldwide efforts to investigate bioremediation strategies have been encouraged to reduce environmental impact caused by pesticide application in the last years. In this way, the rhizodegradation in cooperation with pesticide-degrading rhizobacteria might be a suitable alternative to avoid point source contamination by pesticides and their metabolites. Therefore, the objective for this study was to test the degradation of similar iprodione pesticides and their dichloroaniline (DCA) metabolites by pesticide-degrading rhizobacteria.

Fees payable to the European Chemicals Agency under the Biocides Regulation
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2014)
Analysis of the Judgment of the Court of Justice in Case C-427/12

The Science, Law and Policy of Neonicotinoids and Bees: A New Test Case for the Precautionary Principle
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2013)
Once more, while facing an analogous risk phenomenon affecting their predominantly homogeneous societal and economic interests, the two sides of the Atlantic seem to adopt diverging stances. Amid the publication of several new studies and a set of EFSA scientific opinions linking the use of the world’s most widely used pesticides to bee decline, the European Union adopted a temporary ban on their use. While the Commission does not expressly rely on it, its restrictive decision is clearly based on the controversial precautionary principle. Yet, as it is discussed in this article, the conformity of this decision with the requirements that determine the legal invocation of this principle remains doubtful.

Risk Assessment, Science and Deliberation: Managing Regulatory Diversity under the SPS Agreement?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2012)
The adoption by WTO Members of measures relating to the protection of health and life of animals, plants and humans is regulated by the WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement. A fundamental question in the application of this agreement concerns the distinction to be drawn between legitimate regulation and unlawful restriction of trade. This distinction can be diffi cult to discern, particularly since different communities have different levels of tolerance for risk, which leads to varying national regulatory decisions.

Product Liability Risks for the Chemicals Industry – Recent Developments in Europe
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2011)
The present publication is a multi-jurisdictional overview on recent legal developments with regard to product liability risks for companies from the Chemicals industry. This combined effort was undertaken by various members of the Hogan Lovells Global Chemicals Product Liability Industry group. This two-part publication will in its first part focus on recent developments in Germany, the UK, Italy and France. The respective authors are Dr. Sebastian Lach (Germany), Dr. Hannah von Falkenhausen (Germany), Alex Woods (UK), Christian Di Mauro (Italy), Thomas Rouhette and Christelle Coslin (both France). The second part will focus on China and the US. The respective authors of these country parts are Trevor Jefferies, Courtney Colligan (both US) and Eugene Chen (China).

Environmental fate and persistence of the organophosphorus pesticide disulfoton in different types of natural water
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Degradation kinetics of hydrolysis and photolysis pathways of the organophosphorus pesticide disulfoton (O,O-diethyl S-[2-(ethylthio)ethyl] phosphorodithioate) in several types of natural water were investigated. Not degraded quantity of the compound was determined by GC-NPD means.

Investigation on the behavior of pesticides in atmosphere
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
This paper shows an analytical approach based on GC analysis for evaluating the pesticide trend in atmosphere: in particular, the pesticides investigated are dimethoate, carbaryl, phorate, cypermethrin, chloridazon, phenmedipham and fluazifop-p-butyl. For the analytical methodology a linearity response was obtained (r2= 0.9995) in GC-NPD whereas the limits of detection are 0.001 ng μL-1 in GC-NPD with a Relative Standard Deviation below 9.5%. Finally, this approach has been succefully applied to real samples.

Composition and distribution of organochlorine pollutants in the sediments and mussels from the Istanbul Strait (Turkey)
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Organochlorine pollutants are ubiquitous and persistent anthropogenic contaminants in the aquatic environment. Since these compounds have an affinity for particulate matter, they can accumulate in sediments and due to their lipophilic nature they tend to accumulate also in organisms. In this study, sediment and mussel samples from the stanbul Strait were analyzed for indicator and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 17 dioxins/furans congeners and for organochlorine pesticides (OCs).

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