Risk Assessment, Science and Deliberation: Managing Regulatory Diversity under the SPS Agreement?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2012)
The adoption by WTO Members of measures relating to the protection of health and life of animals, plants and humans is regulated by the WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement. A fundamental question in the application of this agreement concerns the distinction to be drawn between legitimate regulation and unlawful restriction of trade. This distinction can be diffi cult to discern, particularly since different communities have different levels of tolerance for risk, which leads to varying national regulatory decisions.

Product Liability Risks for the Chemicals Industry – Recent Developments in Europe
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2011)
The present publication is a multi-jurisdictional overview on recent legal developments with regard to product liability risks for companies from the Chemicals industry. This combined effort was undertaken by various members of the Hogan Lovells Global Chemicals Product Liability Industry group. This two-part publication will in its first part focus on recent developments in Germany, the UK, Italy and France. The respective authors are Dr. Sebastian Lach (Germany), Dr. Hannah von Falkenhausen (Germany), Alex Woods (UK), Christian Di Mauro (Italy), Thomas Rouhette and Christelle Coslin (both France). The second part will focus on China and the US. The respective authors of these country parts are Trevor Jefferies, Courtney Colligan (both US) and Eugene Chen (China).

Risk vs Hazard and the Two Souls of EU Risk Regulation: A Reply to Ragnar Lofstedt
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2011)
When called upon to regulate risk, the EU carries the threefold onus to (i) protect its people(s); (ii) ensure the functioning of the internal market; and also (iii) to allocate the resources available wisely and efficiently.

Risk versus Hazard – How to Regulate in the 21st Century
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (6/2011)
In Europe, debate as to whether one should regulate chemicals based on intrinsic hazard or assessment of risk, or possibly a combination of both, has been gaining momentum.

The Use of BPA in Baby Bottles: Regulatory Challenges in Dealing with Uncertain Risks
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (3/2011)
Parents of infants have recently been confronted with labels indicating that their purchases of a baby bottle, teethers or sippy cups are now ‘Bisphenol A-free’ (BPA). What does this imply? These labels suggest that the presence of BPA poses a risk of which consumers were most likely unaware.

Composition and distribution of organochlorine pollutants in the sediments and mussels from the Istanbul Strait (Turkey)
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Organochlorine pollutants are ubiquitous and persistent anthropogenic contaminants in the aquatic environment. Since these compounds have an affinity for particulate matter, they can accumulate in sediments and due to their lipophilic nature they tend to accumulate also in organisms. In this study, sediment and mussel samples from the stanbul Strait were analyzed for indicator and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 17 dioxins/furans congeners and for organochlorine pesticides (OCs).

A frozen treasure: the environmental specimen bank
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Time goes by and never comes back. Often we hypothesize that the environment has changed. Easily we are able to measure the current environmental conditions but we are not able to recall human and environmental exposure of the past. The environment is without memory and most information about past conditions is irretrievably lost. In the early 1980s together with a new national chemical legislation, Germany established an instrument that can serve as an environmental memory.

Hydrodechlorination of PCBs-contaminated soils and groundwaters
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2008)
As in most South American countries, the magnitude of the Chilean contaminated site problem is yet to be established. To date, only two studies have been conducted for the identification and preliminary risk assessment of sites under suspicion of contamination, considering the associated human health and environmental risks. The latter work is a case study in an industrial Region in South Central Chile, the second most important in social and economic terms.

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Autoclaving is a form of hydrothermal treatment that uses saturated steam to treat waste at elevated pressures. To date it has customarily been used for the treatment of healthcare waste and rendering of animals/animal by-products, but its use for MSW treatment has also been considered. Typical, current commercial systems for MSW autoclaving operate in a batch mode, at temperatures ranging from around 130°C to 160°C, and retention times of half an hour to one hour. They also involve mixing of the MSW. The output from the autoclave normally undergoes mechanical separation to obtain waste fractions for recovery.

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Our environment contains persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Of these substances, dioxins, furans and the so-called “dioxin-like” PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are the best known because they are the most toxic. Together with the problem of POPs, much has been said about problems linked to atmospheric pollution from fine particles in scientific circles over the last few years. European normatives are moving towards increasingly specific limits such as, for example, the introduction of limits for PM 2.5 and the classification of vehicles according to the number of particles they emit.

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