The Constitutional Foundation and Limitation of the Environmental Levy in Taiwan
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2022)
Environmental protection is one of emerging tasks for modern countries. It has been suggested that social, economic, and technological development and advancement are built on the utilization or consumption of (limited) resources, which simultaneously destruct and damage the environmental conditions fundamental to human life. Consequently, how to reduce, decrease or even avoid more destructions to the living conditions have gradually become the subject of environmental protection legislation.

Geoengineering a Future for Humankind: Some Technical and Ethical Considerations
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
The term “geoengineering” relates to the various strategies and techniques aimed at containing and, in some cases, reversing the effects of anthropogenic and other forms of environmental degradation. These strategies and techniques range from the fairly innocuous to the highly scientifically and politically controversial. Given the transboundary effect of environmental degradation and the urgency that this creates, the concerted efforts of the international community are indispensable to usefully enlist whatever benefits geoengineering is capable of offering. However, serious obstacles stand in the way of the international community acting in unison. This paper seeks to outline the various contentious issues regarding geoengineering that arise in relation to its ethical, technological, political, and trade-related legal dimensions. Along with State actors, it is likely that this field of activity would be highly reliant on market mechanisms to deliver the technological solutions and capital investment that are necessary. Clear rules in relation to how these strategies and techniques ought to be governed are in urgent need. Rules should not be limited to the governance aspects, but should also provide for the commercial use of geoengineering.

Use of compost and digestate in Italy: quality requirments, labelling and use in southern European soils
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
The Europe has reached excellent levels of compost production. The total amount of compost quality in EU is estimated about 12 mln tons di compost in 27 European countries. Does ‘n exist an European legislation on quality criteria for compost. Every countries sets rules for compost production and use. Is necessary to establish laws or regulations to harmonized the quality levels of compost.

The FOOTPRINT software tools: Pesticide risk assessment and management in the EU at different spatial scales
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
In the EU-project FOOTPRINT three pesticide risk assessment and management tools were developed, for use at different spatial scales. The three FOOTPRINT tools share the same underlying science, based on the consistent identification of environmental characteristics driving the fate of agriculturally applied pesticides and their interpretation to parameterise state of the art modelling applications thus providing an integrated solution to pesticide risk assessment and management in the EU.

Transboundary chains for CCS: Allocation of rights and obligations between the state parties within the climate regime
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (11/2007)
When the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol were adopted CCS was not really considered as a possible “part of the solution”2 and they do not contain any explicit rules on how CCS may be used to fulfil the obligations of the state parties. As we will show, there are no clear answers to all the questions we are faced with, but the last part of the article shall discuss some possible legal models which may solve them.

Environmental law, the precautionary principle and contaminated sites’ remediation
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
It was only in 1997 – with Art. 17 of Delegated Legislative Decree No. 22/1997 - that Italy started to provide legislation for cleaning up contaminated sites. Two years later, these regulations were completed, with the Regulations approved by Ministerial Decree No. 417/1999, which also fixed the acceptable limits for soil and groundwater contaminationi. Recently, significant innovations were introduced by Delegated Legislative Decree No. 152/2006 (Arts. 239-253 with regard to the administrative regulation of cleaning up; Art. 257 regarding penalties; Annexes 1-5 to Title V of Part IV regarding technical aspects)ii, implementing Delegating Law No. 308/2004. (Session A3: Impact of regulations and legislations)

Road Planning in Europe – a Case Study (Part II)*
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (2/2007)
The following text contains the third and last section of the general report on national road planning procedures in the EU which originally was compiled as discussion paper for the 20th colloquium of the Association of the Councils of State and Supreme Administrative Jurisdictions of the European Union. (Part 1 including the underlying case was ublished in JEEPL6/2006, pp. 519-534)

Activating Spatial Planning Law: Options for the Reduction of Land Consumption
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (2/2007)
The German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt) commissioned the Department of Environmental and Planning Law of the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ to analyse the capacity of spatial planning law to reduce land consumption, particularly inquiring into the specific shortcomings of the applicable provisions and making recommendations as to how the legal frame could be made more effective.

Effects of separate collection efficiency on the costs of the msw management system – a case study Premium
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (11/2006)
A study on the effects of the separate collection efficiency on the reduction of the content of biodegradable organic matter in the municipal solid waste residual fractions (Residual Municipal Solid Waste, RMSW) and on the resultant costs of the waste management system is presented in the paper. A low efficiency of separate collection of biowaste could result in the need of an intermediate mechanical-biological pre-treatment which affects the overall costs of the MSW management system, where a key role will be played by a new thermal waste to energy (WTE) plant.

Perspectives and limits for RDF destination to cement kilns
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (11/2006)
RDF the high calorific value fraction of MSW obtained by conventional separation systems, can be destinated to technological plants (mainly cement kilns) in order to obtain an useful energy recovery; it is interesting to evaluate this possibility in the general framework of waste-to-energy solutions. The solution must be evaluated on the basis of different aspects, namely: - technological aspects and clinker characteristics; - local atmospheric pollution; - effects of RDF destination to cement kilns on greenhouse gases generation; - economics of conventional solid fuels substitution; - planning perspectives, from the point of view of RDF destination and optimal cement kilns policy. Keywords: RDF production, co-incineration, cement kiln, atmospheric impact, cost, planning.

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