Exposed Geomembrane System at GroĂźer MĂĽhldorfer See Dam
© Springer Vieweg | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH (6/2016)
GroĂźer MĂĽhldorfer See, a gravity dam owned by Verbund Hydro Power GmbH, will be part of Reisseck II pumped storage plant. The dam, 46.50 m high, has upstream prefabricated concrete slabs sealed with bituminous material and Kemperol strips requiring repeated repairs. A geomembrane system was installed to water tighten the dam and avoid maintenance. Among the challenges, the remote site location, the conditions of the facing and of the plinth, and the difficult climate. The article describes how design addressed such challenges and how installation was carried out to meet the objectives and deadlines.

The Right to Water as an International Custom: The Implications in Climate Change Adaptation Measures
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
Water scarcity is a phenomenon of great concern at the international level. Climate change has significant impacts on water access, causing long dry period or intense precipitation, floods and drought. In the brief analysis, it will be proved through States’ practice that the right to water has almost achieved the status of a customary international norm as an independent human right, thus creating obligations upon all States. Considering the relation between water and climate change, it will be argued that the human right to water may be integrated in the adaptation measures provided for by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, even though the human rights and climate change regimes are distinct. The practice in climate change adaptation measures which consider the necessity of granting the access to water to the population is an element which supports the existence of an international custom recognizing the right to water as an independent human right. At the same time, however, this international custom may imply the development of a human rights-based approach in matters concerning climate change.

Water Characteristics of Brazil: The Need for Local Action
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2009)
Brazil’s perception as a water nation, not meaning a national waterborne strategy, although the Brazilian fleet aims for a substantial upgrade in order to demonstrate Brazilian petrol interests most recently, is widely covered in the literature. Even up to 16 per cent of the world’s freshwater resources are said to be located on Brazilian territory.

The French Legal Framework for Marine Protected Areas
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2009)
Frankreich ist nicht nur ein wichtiger Mitgliedstaat der Europäischen Union, sondern hat zugleich das zweitgrößte „Aquitorium“ in der Welt. Veranlasst durch die Beschlüsse der 7. Vertragsstaatenkonferenz der Konvention über die Biologische Vielfalt (CBD) in Kuala Lumpur vom Februar 2004 und andere völkerrechtliche Vorgaben, errichtete Frankreich nach anglo-amerikanischem Vorbild ein Amt („L’agence des aires marines protégées“), das für die Auswahl und das Management mariner Schutzgebiete zuständig ist. Das Ziel ist, 10 % des Küstenmeeres unter Schutz zu stellen.

Global microbiological quality criteria for treated wastewater reuse in agricultural irrigation
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
The reuse of treated wastewater is considered henceforth necessary but also effective solution in water-scarce areas of the world for the confrontation of increased water demand. The application of reuse of treated wastewater presupposes right planning based on the protection of population and environment according to enacted specifications of wastewater treatment plant effluent quality.

Water resources management in Greece under the effects of the climate change
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
The effects of climate change on Europe’s water resources are a major concern of modern society. Human intervention has severely changed the natural cycle of water, affecting not only the environment but humans as well. The degradation of water quality has reached such a low level that the need for strategic planning of an integral and viable water management is necessary. The policies that were followed up to this day did not restrain the problem; on the contrary, in many cases they even increased it. What arises is the need for cohesion between political and economic tools which comprise the motivating power for modern practice in land and water management.

Rehabilitation or partial restitution of the former lake Karla, Greece: Usefulness of the contingent valuation method
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
In a wider thinking as in an ex post social evaluation, one could assume that if Lake Karla, in Greece existed today with extend on 1920 of 18.000 Hx, the benefits for the market would be probably bigger from its operations as well as from its value. However this examination would be today very difficult and complicates because of its repeated diachronic changes and because the lake doesn’t exist now. In this article you can see criticism as an ex post evaluation on the process of evaluation – application of the Hellenic Ministry for the Environment Physical Planning & Public Works (MINENV) of a new project being evasion on the former Lake Karla, in Greece as well as this case is a work of rehabilitation or partial restitution.

Public vs. Private Water Utilities: PBSCs and PPPs used for financial sustainability
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
A public-private partnership (PPP) scheme is a “product providing tool” becoming more and more popular worldwide due to the inability of the public sector to finance a number of projects. In developing countries the implementation of PPPs is crucial especially in the water supply sector. The projects have to do with the reduction of NRW and the provision of better water supply services. Several problems concerning the implementation of PPP and PBSC projects are discussed. The present paper is a review paper discussing a number of key success factors identified for the Public Private Partnerships (PPP) and the Performance Based Service Contracts (PBSC) based in previous studies concerning their successful implementation.

Characteristics of intracellular and extracellular organic components of the Microcystic aeruginosa and their byproducts formation potential during chlorination
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
Characteristics of the intracellular organic components (IOCs) and extracellular organic components (EOCs), including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogenous (DON), algae toxin, B-Cyclocitral, molecular weight distribution and hydrophilic-hydrophobic property, have been investigated. The results indicated the amount of IOCs was 3-10 times higher than that of EOCs.

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Current conventional approaches to wastewater management and sanitation fall under the category of either waterborne or dry systems. In both cases the system design is based on the premise that excreta is a waste, and that waste should be disposed. It also assumes that the environment can safely assimilate this waste. Unfortunately many years, of experience have shown that such conventional approaches are unable to make a significant impact on the sanitary backlog of nearly half of the worlds population, and even in cases where conventional approaches have succeeded in providing a functioning sanitary system, their long-term sustainability is questionable, as is their appropriateness to address the MDGs. (Session A14: Integrated decentralized solid waste and sewage management (I))

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